Reading comprehension test 291

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Reading comprehension questions answers for competitive exam

Question 1 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
Emile Durkheim, the first person to be formally recognized as a sociologist and the most scientific of the pioneers, conducted a study that stands as a research model for sociologists today. His investigation of suicide was, in fact, the first sociological study to use statistics. In Suicide (1964, originally published in 1897) Durkheim documented his contention that some aspects of human behaviour- even something as allegedly invidualistic as suicide-can be explained without reference to individuals.

Like all of Durkheim's work, suicide must be viewed in the context of his concern for social integration. Durkheim wanted to see if suicide rates within a social entity (for example, a group, organisation, or society) are related to the degree to which individuals are socially involved (integrated and regulated). Durkheim described three types of suicide: egoistic, altruistic and anomic. Egoistic suicide is promoted when individuals do not have sufficient social ties: since single (never married) adults, for example, are not heavily involved with family life, they are more likely to commit suicide than the married adults. Altruistic suicide, on the other hand, is more likely to occur when social integration is too strong. The ritual suicide of Hindu widows on their husbands' funeral pyres is one example. Military personnel, trained to lay down their lives for their country, provide another illustration.

Durkheim's third type of suicide-anomic suicide-increases when the social regulation of individuals is disrupted. For example, suicide rates increase during economic depression. People who suddenly find themselves without a job or without hope of finding one are more prone to kill themselves. Suicides may also increase during periods of prosperity. People may loosen their social ties by taking new jobs, moving to new communities, or finding new mates.

Using data from the government population reports of several countries (much of it from the French Government Statistical Office), Durkheim found strong support for his line of reasoning. Suicide rates were higher among single than married people, among military personnel than civilians, among divorced than married people, and among people involved in nationwide economic crises.

It is important to realise that Durkheim's primary interest was not in the empirical (observable) indicators he used, such as suicide rates among military personnel, married people, and so forth. Rather, Durkheim used the following indicators to support several of his contentions. (a) Social behaviour can be explained by social rather than psychological factors. (b) Suicide is affected by the degree of integration and regulation within social entities; and (c) Since society can be studied scientifically, sociology is worthy of recognition in the academic world.

Durkheim was successful on all three counts.

In this study of suicide, Durkheim's main purpose was:

A
to document that suicide can be explained without reference to the individual.
B
to provide an explanation of the variation in the rate of suicide across societies.
C
to categorize various types of suicide.
D
to document that social behavior can be explained by social rather than psychological factors.
Question 1 Explanation: 
Refer to the lines from paragraph 1: Durkheim documented his contention that some aspects of human behaviour even something as allegedly individualistic as suicide-can be explained without reference to individuals. This shows that Durkheim's main purpose was to document that suicide can be explained without reference to the individual. Hence, option A is the right answer choice.Option D might confuse you here a little but then you need to remember that option D is picked from another context in the passage. It is one of contentions that Durkheim proves with respect to the subject of sociology. The given question here pertains to suicide and therefore, we need select option A in the given case.
Question 2 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
According to Durkheim, suicide rates within a social entity can be explained in terms of:
A
absence of social ties.
B
disruption of social regulation.
C
nature of social integration
D
all of the above.
Question 2 Explanation: 
According to Durkheim, suicide rates within a social entity can be explained in terms of absence of social ties, disruption of social regulation and nature of social integration. This is evident from paragraph 2 of the passage wherein the author describes the different kinds of suicide. Hence, option D is the right answer choice.
Question 3 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
Since single adults are not heavily involved with family life, they are more likely to commit suicide which Durkheim categories as:
A
anomic suicide
B
altruistic suicide
C
egoistic suicide
D
none of the above
Question 3 Explanation: 
Refer to the line from paragraph 2: Egoistic suicide is promoted when individuals do not have sufficient social ties: Since single (never married) adults, for example, are not heavily involved with family life, they are more likely to commit suicide than the married adults.This is a direct question and answer can be directly found from the lines above. The correct answer is option (C).
Question 4 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
Higher suicide rate during rapid progress in a society is a manifestation of:
A
altruistic suicide
B
anomic suicide
C
egoistic suicide
D
none of the above
Question 4 Explanation: 
Refer to the line from paragraph 3: Durkheim's third type of suicide-anomic suicide-increases when the social regulation of individuals is disrupted. For example, suicide rates increase during economic depression. People who suddenly find themselves without a job or without hope of finding one are more prone to kill themselves. Suicides may also increase during periods of prosperity. The answer can be directly derived from the lines above. The correct answer is option (B).
Question 5 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
Ritual suicide of Hindu widows on their husbands' funeral pyres was:
A
a manifestation of strong social integration
B
an example of brutality against women
C
an example of anomic suicide
D
an example of egoistic suicide
Question 5 Explanation: 
Refer to the line from paragraph 2: Altruistic suicide, on the other hand, is more likely to occur when social integration is too strong. The ritual suicide of Hindu widows on their husbands' funeral pyres is one example. The lines above explain why option A is the correct answer.
Question 6 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
Increase in the suicide rate during economic depression is an example of:
A
altruistic suicide
B
anomic suicide
C
egoistic suicide
D
both A and C
Question 6 Explanation: 
Refer to the line from paragraph 3: Durkheim's third type of suicide-anomic suicide-increases when the social regulation of individuals is disrupted. For example, suicide rates increase during economic depression. Anomic suicide (option B) is the right answer choice.
Question 7 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
According to Durkheim, altruistic suicide is more likely among:
A
military personal than among civilians.
B
single people than among married people.
C
divorcees than among married people.
D
people involved in nation-wide economic crisis.
Question 7 Explanation: 
Refer to the lines from paragraph 2: Altruistic suicide, on the other hand, is more likely to occur when social integration is too strong. Military personnel, trained to lay down their lives for their country, provide another illustration. This makes option A as the right answer choice.
Question 8 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
To support his contentions, Durkheim relied on the following indicators:
A
social behavior is explicable through social factors.
B
suicide is contingent upon the degree of regulation and interaction.
C
recognizing sociology is to acknowledge that society is susceptible to scientific investigation.
D
All of the above.
Question 8 Explanation: 
In this case, the three options are derived from the three contentions arrived upon by Durkheim. These are mentioned at the end of the passage. Refer to the following extract from the passage: Rather, Durkheim used the following indicators to support several of his contentions.(a) Social behaviour can be explained by social rather than psychological factors.(b) Suicide is affected by the degree of integration and regulation within social entities; and (c) Since society can be studied scientifically, sociology is worthy of recognition in the academic world.Each of the three options, (A), (B) and (C), can be derived from the points above.
Question 9 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW THE RIGHT ANSWER]
Basing himself on his own indicators, Durkheim was:
A
right on some counts not others.
B
vindicated on all counts
C
wrong but did not realise that he was right.
D
substantially correct but formally wrong.
Question 9 Explanation: 
Refer to the last line of the passage: Durkheim was successful on all three counts. In other words, he was vindicated on all counts. The word 'vindicated' means 'show to be right by providing justification or proof'. Hence, option B is the right answer choice.
There are 9 questions to complete.

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