Reading comprehension test 312

 

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Question 1
My aim is to present a conception of justice which generalizes and carries to a higher level of abstraction the familiar theory of the social contract. In order to do this we are not to think of the original contract as one to enter a particular society or to set up a particular form of government. Rather, the idea is that the principles of justice for the basic structure of society are the object of the original agreement. They are the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality. These principles are to regulate all further agreements; they specify the kinds of social cooperation that can be entered into and the forms of government that can be established. This way of regarding the principles of justice, I shall call justice as fairness. Thus, we are to imagine that those who engage in social cooperation choose together, in one joint act, the principles which are to assign basic rights and duties and to determine the division of social benefits. Just as each person must decide by rational reflection what constitutes his good, that is, the system of ends which it is rational for him to pursue, so a group of persons must decide once and for all what is to count among them as just and unjust. The choice which rational men would make in this hypothetical situation of equal liberty determines the principles of justice.

In 'justice as fairness', the original position is not an actual historical state of affairs. It is understood as a purely hypothetical situation characterized so as to lead to a certain conception of justice. Among the essential features of this situation is that no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. I shall even assume that the parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities. The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance. This ensures that no one is advantaged or disadvantaged in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances. Since all are similarly situated and no one is able to design principles to favor his particular condition, the principles of justice are the result of a fair agreement or bargain.

Justice as fairness begins with one of the most general of all choices which persons might make together, namely, with the choice of the first principles of a conception of justice which is to regulate all subsequent criticism and reform of institutions. Then, having chosen a conception of justice, we can suppose that they are to choose a constitution and a legislature to enact laws, and so on, all in accordance with the principles of justice initially agreed upon. Our social situation is just if it is such that by this sequence of hypothetical agreements we would have contracted into the general system of rules which defines it. Moreover, assuming that the original position does determine a set of principles, it will then be true that whenever social institutions satisfy these principles, those engaged in them can say to one another that they are cooperating on terms to which they would agree if they were free and equal persons whose relations with respect to one another were fair. They could all view their arrangements as meeting the stipulations which they would acknowledge in an initial situation that embodies widely accepted and reasonable constraints on the choice of principles. The general recognition of this fact would provide the basis for a public acceptance of the corresponding principles of justice. No society can, of course, be a scheme of cooperation which men enter voluntarily in a literal sense; each person finds himself placed at birth in some particular position in some particular society, and the nature of this position materially affects his life prospects. Yet a society satisfying the principles of justice as fairness comes as close as a society can to being a voluntary scheme, for it meets the principles which free and equal persons would assent to under circumstances that are fair.

A just society, as conceptualized in the passage, can be best described as:

A
A Utopia in which everyone is equal and no one enjoys any privilege based on their existing positions and powers
B
A hypothetical society in which people agree upon principles of justice which are fair
C
A society in which principles of justice are not based on the existing positions and powers of the individuals
D
A society in which principles of justice are fair to all.
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Question 1 Explanation: 
Solution: Refer to the line from paragraph 2..., "In 'justice as fairness', the original position is not an actual historical state of affairs. It is understood as a purely hypothetical situation characterized so as to lead to a certain conception of justice" which explains that option C is the right answer choice
Question 2
The original agreement or original position in the passage has been used by the author as:
A
A hypothetical situation conceived to derive principles of justice which are not influenced by position, status and condition of individuals in the society
B
A hypothetical situation in which every individual is equal and no individual enjoys any privilege based on the existing positions and powers.
C
A hypothetical situation to ensure fairness of agreements among individuals in society.
D
An imagined situation in which principles of justice would have to be fair
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Question 2 Explanation: 
Solution: Refer to the line from paragraph 1..., "Rather, the idea is that the principles of justice for the basic structure of society are the object of the original agreement" which explains that option A is the right answer choice
Question 3
Which of the following best illustrates the situation that is equivalent to choosing 'the principles of justice' behind a 'veil of ignorance'?
A
The principles of justice are chosen by businessmen, who are marooned on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck, but have some possibility of returning
B
The principles of justice are chosen by businessmen, who are marooned on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck, but have some possibility of returning
C
The principles of justice are chosen by businessmen, who are marooned on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck and have no possibility of returning
D
The principles of justice are chosen assuming that such principles will govern the lives of the rule makers only in their next birth if the rule makers agree that they will be born again
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Question 3 Explanation: 
Solution: Refer to the lines from paragraph 2..., "The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance. This ensures that no one is advantaged or disadvantaged in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances" which explain that the principles are chosen assuming that such principles will govern the lives of the rule makers only in their next birth if the rule makers agree that they will be born again. Option D is thus the right answer choice
Question 4
Why, according to the passage, do principles of justice need to be based on an original agreement?
A
Social institutions and laws can be considered fair only if they conform to principles of justice
B
Social institutions and laws can be fair only if they are consistent with the principles of justice as initially agreed upon
C
Social institutions and laws need to be fair in order to be just
D
Social institutions and laws evolve fairly only if they are consistent with the principles of justice as initially agreed upon
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Question 4 Explanation: 
Solution: According to the passage, principles of justice need to be based on an original agreement because social institutions and laws can be fair only if they are consistent with the principles of justice as initially agreed upon. Option B is thus the right choice
Question 5
Which of the following situations best represents the idea of justice as fairness, as argued in the passage?
A
All individuals are paid equally for the work they do
B
Everyone is assigned some work for his or her livelihood
C
All acts of theft are penalized equally
D
All children are provided free education in similar schools
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Question 5 Explanation: 
Solution: Idea of justice as fairness can be best described as when all children are provided free education in similar schools. Option D is thus the right choice
There are 5 questions to complete.

 

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