Reading comprehension test 313

 

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Reading comprehension questions answers for competitive exam

Question 1
A game of strategy, as currently conceived in game theory, is a situation in which two or more "players" make choices among available alternatives (moves). The totality of choices determines the outcomes of the game, and it is assumed that the rank order of preferences for the outcomes is different for different players. Thus the "interests" of the players are generally in conflict. Whether these interests are diametrically opposed or only partially opposed depends on the type of game.

Psychologically, most interesting situations arise when the interests of the players are partly coincident and partly opposed, because then one can postulate not only a conflict among the players but also inner conflicts within the players. Each is torn between a tendency to cooperate, so as to promote the common interests, and a tendency to compete, so as to enhance his own individual interests.

Internal conflicts are always psychologically interesting. What we vaguely call "interesting" psychology is in very great measure the psychology of inner conflict. Inner conflict is also held to be an important component of serious literature as distinguished from less serious genres. The classical tragedy, as well as the serious novel reveals the inner conflict of central figures. The superficial adventure story on the other hand, depicts only external conflict; that is, the threats to the person with whom the reader (or viewer) identifies stem in these stories exclusively from external obstacles and from the adversaries who create them. On the most primitive level this sort of external conflict is psychologically empty. In the fisticuffs between the protagonists of good and evil, no psychological problems are involved or, at any rate, none are depicted in juvenile representations of conflict.

The detective story, the "adult" analogue of a juvenile adventure tale, has at times been described as a glorification of intellectualized conflict. However, a great deal of the interest in the plots of these stories is sustained by withholding the unraveling of a solution to a problem. The effort of solving the problem is in itself not a conflict if the adversary (the unknown criminal) remains passive, like Nature, whose secrets the scientist supposedly unravels by deduction. If the adversary actively puts obstacles in the detective's path toward the solution, there is genuine conflict. But the conflict is psychologically interesting only to the extent that it contains irrational components such as a tactical error on the criminal's part or the detective's insight into some psychological quirk of the criminal or something of this sort. Conflict conducted in a perfectly rational manner is psychologically no more interesting than a standard Western. For example, Tic-tac-toe, played perfectly by both players, is completely devoid of psychological interest. Chess may be psychologically interesting but only to the extent that it is played not quite rationally. Played completely rationally, chess would not be different from Tic-tac-toe.

In short, a pure conflict of interest (what is called a zero-sum game) although it offers a wealth of interesting conceptual problems, is not interesting psychologically, except to the extent that its conduct departs from rational norms.

According to the passage, internal conflicts are psychologically more interesting than external conflicts because

A
internal conflicts, rather than external conflicts, form an important component of serious literature as distinguished from less serious genres
B
only juveniles or very few "adults" actually experience external conflict, while internal conflict is more widely prevalent in society
C
in situations of internal conflict, individuals experience a dilemma in resolving their own preferences for different outcomes
D
there are no threats to the reader (or viewer) in case of external conflicts
Reading comprehension Questions answers
Question 1 Explanation: 
Solution: Refer to the line from paragraph 2..., "Each is torn between a tendency to cooperate, so as to promote the common interests, and a tendency to compete, so as to enhance his own individual interests" explain that option C is the right answer choice
Question 2
Which, according to the author, would qualify as interesting psychology?
A
A statistician's dilemma over choosing the best method to solve an optimization problem
B
A chess player's predicament over adopting a defensive strategy against an aggressive opponent
C
A mountaineer's choice of the best path to Mt. Everest from the base camp
D
A finance manager's quandary over the best way of raising money from the market
Data interpretation (DI) Questions answers
Question 2 Explanation: 
Solution: Refer to the line from paragraph 4..., "Chess may be psychologically interesting but only to the extent that it is played not quite rationally" which explain that option B is the right answer choice
Question 3
According to the passage, which of the following options about the application of game theory to a conflict-of-interest situation is true?
A
Assuming that the rank order of preferences for options is different for different players
B
Accepting that the interests of different players are often in conflict
C
Not assuming that the interests are in complete disagreement
D
All of the above
Economics Questions answers
Question 3 Explanation: 
Solution: Refer to the line from paragraph 1..., "Thus the "interests" of the players are generally in conflict. Whether these interests are diametrically opposed or only partially opposed depends on the type of game" which explain that option B is the right answer choice
Question 4
The problem solving process of a scientist is different from that of a detective because
A
scientists study inanimate objects, while detectives deal with living criminals or law offenders
B
scientists study known objects, while detectives have to deal with unknown criminals or law offenders
C
scientists study phenomena that are not actively altered, while detectives deal with phenomena that have been deliberately influenced to mislead
D
scientists study psychologically interesting phenomena, while detectives deal with "adult" analogues of juvenile adventure tales
Aptitude test Questions answers
Question 4 Explanation: 
Solution: Refer to the line from paragraph 4..., "The effort of solving the problem is in itself not a conflict if the adversary (the unknown criminal) remains passive, like Nature, whose secrets the scientist supposedly unravels by deduction" which explain that option C is the right answer
There are 4 questions to complete.

 

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