Reading comprehension test 315


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Question 1
While complex in the extreme, Derrida's work has proven to be a particularly influential approach to the analysis of the ways in which language structures our understanding of ourselves and the world we inhabit, an approach he termed deconstruction. In its simplest formulation, deconstruction can be taken to refer to a methodological strategy which seeks to uncover layers of hidden meaning in a text that have been denied or suppressed. The term 'text', in this respect, does not refer simply to a written form of communication, however. Rather, texts are something we all produce and reproduce constantly in our every day social relations, be they spoken, written or embedded in the construction of material artifacts. At the heart of Derrida's deconstructive approach is his critique of what he perceives to be the totalitarian impulse of the Enlightenment pursuit to bring all that exists in the world under the domain of representative language, a pursuit he refers to as logocentrism. Logocentrism is the search for a rational language that is able to know and represent the world and all its aspects perfectly and accurately. Its totalitarian dimension, for Derrida at least, lies primarily in its tendency to marginalize or dismiss all that does not neatly comply with its particular linguistic representations, a tendency that, throughout history, has all too frequently been manifested in the form of authoritarian institutions. Thus logocentrism has, in its search for the truth of absolute representation, subsumed difference and oppressed that which it designates as its alien 'other'. For Derrida, western civilization has been built upon such a systematic assault on alien cultures and ways of life, typically in the name of reason and progress.

In response to logocentrism, deconstruction posits the idea that the mechanism by which this process of marginalization and the ordering of truth occurs is through establishing systems of binary opposition. Oppositional linguistic dualisms, such as rational/irrational, culture/nature and good/bad are not, however, construed as equal partners as they are in, say, the semiological structuralism of Saussure. Rather, they exist, for Derrida, in a series of hierarchical relationships with the first term normally occupying a superior position. Derrida defines the relationship between such oppositional terms using the neologism differance. This refers to the realization that in any statement, oppositional terms differ from each other (for instance, the difference between rationality and irrationality is constructed through oppositional usage), and at the same time, a hierarchical relationship is maintained by the deference of one term to the other (in the positing of rationality over irrationality, for instance). It is this latter point which is perhaps the key to understanding Derrida's approach to deconstruction.

For the fact at any given time one term must defer to its oppositional 'other', means that the two terms are constantly in a state of interdependence. The presence of one is dependent upon the absence or 'absentpresence' of the 'other', such as in the case of good and evil, whereby to understand the nature of one, we must constantly relate it to the absent term in order to grasp its meaning. That is, to do good, we must understand that our act is not evil, for without that comparison the term becomes meaningless. Put simply, deconstruction represents an attempt to demonstrate the absent-presence of this oppositional 'other', to show that what we say or write is in itself not expressive simply of what is present, but also of what is absent. Thus, deconstruction seeks to reveal the interdependence of apparently dichotomous terms and their meanings relative to their textual context; that is, within the linguistic power relations which structure dichotomous terms hierarchically. In Derrida's own words, a deconstructive reading "must always aim at a certain relationship, unperceived by the writer, between what he commands and what he does not command of the patterns of a language that he uses. ...[It] attempts to make the not-seen accessible to sight."

Meaning, then, is never fixed or stable, whatever the intention of the author of a text. For Derrida, language is a system of relations that are dynamic, in that all meanings we ascribe to the world are dependent not only on what we believe to be present but also on what is absent. Thus, any act of interpretation must refer not only to what the author of a text intends, but also to what is absent from his or her intention. This insight leads, once again, to Derrida's further rejection of the idea of the definitive authority of the intentional agent or subject. The subject is decentred; it is conceived as the outcome of relations of differance. As author of its own biography, the subject thus becomes the ideological fiction of modernity and its logocentric philosophy, one that depends upon the formation of hierarchical dualisms, which repress and deny the presence of the absent 'other'. No meaning can, therefore, even be definitive, but is merely an outcome of a particular interpretation.

According to the passage, Derrida believes that:

Reality can be construed only through the use of rational analysis
Language limits our construction of reality
A universal language will facilitate a common understanding of reality
We need to uncover the hidden meaning in a system of relations expressed by language
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Question 1 Explanation: 
Option (A) and (C) go against what has been said by Derrida. The two close options are: (B) and (D). Option (B) loses out because of the slight modification it introduces. Had it been something line "language places a limit on our interpretations of reality', it could have been the correct answer. Since this is not the case, we need to reject this option. This leaves us with only one answer option.
Question 2
To Derrida, 'logocentrism' does not imply:
A totalitarian impulse
A domain of representative language
Interdependence of the meanings of dichotomous terms
A strategy that seeks to suppress hidden meanings in a text.
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Question 2 Explanation: 
This is question where you need to understand the implication and sentiment of the given answer options. Options (A), (B) and (D) make one common mistake: each of these options refers to what logocentrism is. The question asks you:To Derrida, 'logocentrism' does not imply. This means you need to identify an answer option that does is at variance with what logocentrism is.
Question 3
According to the passage, Derrida believes that the system of binary opposition
represents a prioritization or hierarchy
reconciles contradictions and dualities
weakens the process of marginalization and ordering of truth
deconstructs reality.
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Question 3 Explanation: 
Refer to the lines: "Rather, they exist, for Derrida, in a series of hierarchical relationships with the first term normally occupying a superior position. Derrida defines the relationship between such oppositional terms using the neologism differance". The above lines help us identify option A as the correct answer.
Question 4
Derrida rejects the idea of 'definitive authority of the subject' because
interpretation of the text may not make the unseen visible
the meaning of the text is based on binary opposites
the implicit power relationship is often ignored
any act of interpretation must refer to what the author intends
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Question 4 Explanation: 
Let us look at the individual options. Option (C) and (D) are easy to reject in this case. Option (C) is irrelevant in the given context and option (D) states opposite of what is given in the passage. Options (A) and (B) are the close ones. The key thing you need to understand here is that it is not the meaning of text which is based on binary opposite. In fact, binary opposites are based on the interpretation of text. This helps us identify option (A) as the correct answer.
There are 4 questions to complete.


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