Science current affairs

Science current affairs

Question 1 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
For which project, The Union Cabinet forms a three-member crew to be sent to space for at least seven days.
A
NISAR
B
AVATAR
C
Gaganyaan
D
Chandrayaan
Question 1 Explanation: 
The Union Cabinet has approved the Gaganyaan project under which a three-member crew will be sent to space for at least seven days, Union Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad stated. The project will cost INR 10, 000 crore. The Gaganyaan project was announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his Independence Day speech. He had stated that the mission will be undertaken by 2022. India has already inked agreements with Russia and France for assistance in the ambitious project.






Question 2 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Name of the NASA's space instrument that will travel with the Lucy mission to Jupiter's Trojan asteroids, in 2021.
A
Ralph
B
Delfino
C
MaxR
D
Rhino
Question 2 Explanation: 
NASA's Ralph, a space instrument, will travel with the Lucy mission to Jupiter's Trojan asteroids, in 2021. The Lucy spacecraft carries a near-twin of Ralph named L'Ralph. L'Ralph will investigate Jupiter's Trojan asteroids. Lucy will fly by 6 Trojans and 1 Main Belt asteroid, which is more than any other previous asteroid mission. L'Ralph will detect the chemical fingerprints of Trojan asteroids. These data would be helpful in finding how organic molecules form in primitive bodies, a process that might have led to the emergence of life on Earth.
Question 3 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
ISRO and ..... signed an agreement to set up a joint maritime surveillance system.
A
JAXA
B
CNES
C
NASA
D
SpaceX
Question 3 Explanation: 
National space agency ISRO and French space agency CNES signed an agreement to set up a joint maritime surveillance system in the country in May. K.Sivan, Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation, and Jean-Yves Le Gall, President of CNES of France, signed the agreement in Bengaluru. The two nations will explore putting up a constellation of low-Earth orbiting satellites that will identify and track the movement of ships globally, and in particular, those moving in the Indian Ocean region where France has its Reunion Islands. The CNES-ISRO agreement intends to supply an operational system for detecting, identifying and tracking ships in the Indian Ocean. It provides for a maritime surveillance centre to be set up in India in May this year; sharing of capacity to process existing satellite data and joint development of associated algorithms. The two agencies have put up two climate and ocean weather monitoring satellites Megha-Tropiques (of 2011) and SARAL-AltiKa (2013) that are considered a model.






Question 4 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
India Successfully Test-Fires Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Agni-5 from which of the space station?
A
Abdul Kalam Island
B
Satish Dhawan Space Centre
C
National Remote Sensing Centre
D
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit
Question 4 Explanation: 
The indigenously built Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Agni-5 has been test-fired successfully from Abdul Kalam island under Chandipur Interim Test Range. It can carry both nuclear and traditional weapons. The first test was conducted in 2012 from ITR Chandipur in Balasore district. This is the fourth successful test of this missile. Previously the test of Agni 4 was unsuccessful. Having 17 meters length and 2 meters diameter the missile can hit the target from a distance of 5 thousand kilometers.
Question 5 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Which country has built an 'artificial sun' that reaches 6 times the temperature of Sun?
A
China
B
United States
C
Russia
D
France
Question 5 Explanation: 
China has built an 'artificial sun' that reaches 100 million $^\circ$C, 6 times the temperature of Sun's core of 15 million $^\circ$C. On 13th November 2018, scientists from China's Institute of Plasma Physics announced that plasma in their Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) also called the "artificial sun", reached 100 million $^\circ$C, the temperature required to perform nuclear fusion on Earth. The EAST reactor has been designed to replicate processes happening at the Sun to turn hydrogen into cost-effective green energy. EAST is 11 metres tall. It has a diameter of 8 metres. It weighs nearly 360 tonnes. The record temperature was achieved through various new techniques in heating and controlling the plasma. But they were able to maintain the state for only about 10 seconds.






Question 6 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Which Chinese space probe touched down on the far side of the moon?
A
Chang'e-4 lunar probe
B
Chang'e 5-T1 lunar probe
C
Yinghuo-1 lunar probe
D
Chang'E-3 lunar probe
Question 6 Explanation: 
Chang'e-4 lunar probe, a Chinese space probe, touched down on the far side of the moon. The probe, which has a lander and a rover, that was launched in December made the soft landing and transmitted the first-ever close-range image of the far side of the moon. It touched down at a targeted area near the moon's south pole in the Von Karman Crater. The purpose of the Chang'e-4 includes astronomical observation, surveying the moon's terrain, landform, and mineral makeup, and measuring the neutron radiation and neutral atoms to study the environment of its far side. The moon is tidally locked to Earth, rotating at the same rate as it orbits our planet, so most of the far side or dark side is never visible to us. Previous spacecraft have seen the far side, but none has landed on it. China's space agency hailed the event as a historic first and a major achievement for the country's space programme.
Question 7 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
The researchers of this country developed a system that can produce electricity and hydrogen fuel from carbon dioxide.
A
Japan
B
China
C
South Korea
D
Russia
Question 7 Explanation: 
Scientists from Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) in South Korea have developed a system that can produce electricity and hydrogen fuel from carbon dioxide. The Hybrid Na-CO2 system can continuously produce electrical energy and hydrogen through efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) conversion with stable operation for over 1, 000 hours. The key to this technology is the easy conversion of chemically stable CO2 molecules to other materials. Much of human CO2 emissions are absorbed by the ocean and turned into acidity. The researchers focused on this phenomenon and came up with the idea of melting CO2 into water to induce an electrochemical reaction.If acidity increases, the number of protons increases, which in turn increases the power to attract electrons. If a battery system is created based on this phenomenon, electricity can be produced by removing CO2. In particular, this system has shown stability to the point of operating for more than 1, 000 hours without damage to electrodes. The system can be applied to remove CO2 by inducing voluntary chemical reactions.






Question 8 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
GSAT-31, which is in news recently, is launched from which of the following places?
A
Sriharikota
B
Moscow
C
French Guiana
D
Florida
Question 8 Explanation: 
India's latest communication satellite GSAT-31 was successfully launched by European launch services provider- Arianespace's rocket from Kourou Launch Base in French Guiana on February 6, 2019. The Ariane-5 vehicle (Flight VA247) also carried Saudi Geostationary Satellite 1/Hellas Sat 4 along with GSAT-31.
Question 9 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
India's heaviest communication satellite that is launched successfully from French Guiana.
A
GSAT-10
B
GSAT-17
C
GSAT-11
D
GSAT-9
Question 9 Explanation: 
ISRO's heaviest and most advanced high throughput communication satellite 'GSAT-11' was successfully launched by an European Ariane-5 vehicle (Flight VA246) rocket from Guiana Space Centre at Kourou in French Guiana. Initially, the satellite is placed in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and will be raised to the Geostationary Orbit (36, 000 km above the equator) through phase-wise orbit-raising manoeuvres in the days ahead, using its on-board propulsion systems. GSAT-11 will be positioned at 74-degree east longitude in the geostationary orbit.The mission of the 5, 854-kg giant 'bird' is to provide high data rate connectivity to users of Indian mainland and islands through 32 user beams in Ku-band and 8 hub beams in Ka-band. It will boost the broadband connectivity to rural and inaccessible Gram Panchayats under BharatNet Project which is part of the Digital India initiative. The satellite is capable of providing high bandwidth connectivity with speeds of up to 16 gigabytes per second. GSAT-11' s co-passenger is South Korea's GEO-KOMPSAT-2A, a meteorology satellite.






Question 10 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Which of the following is the first manned mission to the International Space Station (ISS)?
A
Soyuz mission
B
Apollo 11 mission
C
Shenzhou mission
D
Tiangong-2 mission
Question 10 Explanation: 
After the October launch failure, a Soyuz rocket carrying Russian, American and Canadian astronauts took off from Kazakhstan and reached orbit on 3rd December in the first manned mission. Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko, Anne McClain of NASA and David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency were launched off for a six-and-a-half month mission on the International Space Station (ISS). After the rocket lifted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Russian space agency Roscomos announced that the capsule was successfully launched into orbit.
Question 11 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Recently, Which country test fired surface-to-air missile "QRSAM"successfully?
A
India
B
South Korea
C
USA
D
Russia
Question 11 Explanation: 
India successfully test fired the short range Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM), developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the Indian Army, from a test range along the coast of Odisha. It is a sleek and highly mobile air defence system with a strike range of 25 km to 30 km and has a capability of engaging multiple targets. It is different from normal air defence system, as this is an all-weather, all-terrain missile with electronic counter measures against jamming by aircraft radars. It was first tested in June 2017 and followed by the second successful test in July 2017. It will replace the 'Akash' missile defence system which is on its way out due to technological obsolescence.






Question 12 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
InSight lander places its first instrument (SEIS) on?
A
Pluto
B
Jupiter
C
Mars
D
Saturn
Question 12 Explanation: 
The US space agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced that its InSight lander has deployed its first instrument Seismometer (SEIS) onto the surface of Mars, completing a major mission milestone that will allow scientists to peer into the Martian interior by studying ground motion also known as marsquakes. The Insight will deploy two more instruments namely Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE) and Heat Probe (HP3) to study Mars' deep interiors.
Question 13 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Which of the following is India's second mission to moon?
A
Chandrayaan 1
B
Chandrayaan 2
C
Chandrayaan 1A
D
Chandrayaan 2A
Question 13 Explanation: 
India's lunar mission Chandrayaan 2 will carry NASA's laser instruments. The U.S. space agency said that the laser instrument will help scientists to make precise measurements of the distance to the Moon. Chandrayaan 2 is scheduled to be launched in the month of April. NASA has confirmed that Chandrayaan 2 and Israeli lander Beresheet, due to touch down on April 11, will each carry NASA-owned laser retroreflector arrays. Chandrayaan-2 will be India's second mission to the Moon. It will include an orbiter and lander-rover module.






Question 14 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
India's 1st Manned Mission Gaganyaan will be launched by .....
A
March 2020
B
December 2021
C
May 2022
D
August 2024
Question 14 Explanation: 
ISRO Chairman Dr. K Sivan has announced that the organization is well prepared to meet the targets of launching Gaganyaan manned mission to outer space by December 2021. Under Gaganyaan project, India is planning to send three astronauts to outer space for seven days and bring them back. 332 launches are planned this year. Important among them are Chandrayaaan -2 mission to the moon in mid-April. GSAT-20 Satellite for high bandwidth connectivity to be launched in September-October.
Question 15 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Researchers from this University have created the first ever 'Ion Drive' plane with no moving part by adapting a technology that is previously used in Spacecraft.
A
National University of Singapore
B
University of Chicago
C
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
D
Stanford University
Question 15 Explanation: 
Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA have created the first ever 'Ion Drive' plane with no moving part by adapting a technology that is previously used in Spacecraft. Due to absence of moving parts, the plane will not produce any harmful exhaust. The Maintenance cost will also reduce and the plane will not create any noise. Ion Drives work by firing out a stream of charged particles which will propel the vessel forward. Ion drives have been used in spacecraft since 1960s. The research will pave the way for the possibility of silent drones in the near future. The research can be the first step towards the revolution of aviation industry.






Question 16 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Which team won the first ever Premier Badminton League?
A
Ahmedabad Smash Masters
B
Bengaluru Raptors
C
Delhi Dashers
D
Pune 7 Aces
Question 16 Explanation: 
Bengaluru Raptors have won their first ever Premier Badminton League, PBL title. In the title clash played at Bengaluru, Bengaluru edged out Mumbai Rockets, with a 4-3 win. Star player Kidambi Srikanth, Vu Ji Trang and the Men's Doubles pair of Mohammad Ahsan and Hendra Satiawan won their matches for Bengaluru guiding them to victory.
Question 17 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
How many American astronauts are successfully replaced ageing batteries on ISS?
A
5
B
3
C
4
D
2
Question 17 Explanation: 
NASA's Anne McClain and Nick Hague took a spacewalk on 22nd March to replace ageing batteries on the International Space Station. Two American astronauts worked for several hours to swap three nickel-hydrogen batteries with more powerful lithium-ion ones. The duo overcame minor struggles in their first task, which involved attaching a tool bag on one of the station's trusses for possible future use. The space station uses solar panels to generate power but the batteries are used when it is in the dark and not getting power from the sun.






Question 18 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
How many satellites have to be launched by ISRO in April?
A
29
B
18
C
12
D
35
Question 18 Explanation: 
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch 29 satellites including the primary payload EMISAT, on the first of April. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C45 will take off from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota tentatively at 9:30 AM carrying the satellites onboard. EMISAT has been developed for monitoring radar network by India. EMISAT, weighing 436 kg, is intended for electromagnetic spectrum measurement. It will be placed in an orbit of about 753 km altitude. The customer payloads are from Lithuania, Spain, Switzerland and the US. They will be hurled into space at an altitude of about 505 km.
Question 19 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
The telescope used by Indian astronomers to discover some sources in the universe that emit radio waves called 'Extremely Inverted Spectrum Extragalactic Radio Sources'. It was;
A
Hale Telescope
B
Hubble Space Telescope
C
Large Zenith Telescope
D
Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope
Question 19 Explanation: 
For the first time ever, a team of Indian astronomers has discovered some sources in the universe that emit radio waves in a totally new mechanism, by using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) which is located at Khodad in Junnar, 80 kms away from Pune. The team is headed by TIFR-National Centre for Radio Astronomy (NCRA) who is responsible for operating GMRT. They have discovered a rare source called 'Extremely Inverted Spectrum Extragalactic Radio Sources'. GMRT is highly sensitive and has a low range feature. Emissions were captured at frequencies around 150 MHz (megahertz).






Question 20 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
SpaceX launched Israel's first moon lander, "Beresheet", from Florida It's total weight is;
A
750 Kg
B
600 Kg
C
525 Kg
D
585 kg
Question 20 Explanation: 
Israel's first moon lander, the 585 kg "Beresheet"("Genesis"in Hebrew), was launched atop a Falcon 9 rocket from the private US-based SpaceX in Florida, United States. At a cost of USD 100 million, it is the lowest-budget spacecraft to ever undertake such a mission. It is part of renewed global interest in the Moon, sometimes called the "Eighth Continent"of the Earth. The project is funded almost entirely by donations making it the first privately backed lunar lander mission.It was notably financed by businessman and philanthropist Morris Kahn. Other partners include Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), Israel's space agency and Israel's Ministry of Science and Technology. Beresheet carries a "time capsule"loaded with digital files containing a Bible, children's drawings, Israeli songs, memories of a Holocaust survivor and the blue-and-white Israeli flag. Landing is the main mission, but the spacecraft also carries a scientific instrument to measure the lunar magnetic field, which will help understanding of the Moon's formation.
Question 21 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
The new human protein discovered by researchers to fight the Ebola virus.
A
ERPT7
B
ZAUN4
C
THUL9
D
RBBP6
Question 21 Explanation: 
Researchers have discovered a human protein that helps fight the Ebola virus, and could one day lead to an effective therapy against the deadly disease. The newly discovered ability of the human protein RBBP6 to interfere with Ebola virus replication suggests new ways to fight the infection, according to the study published in the journal Cell.






Question 22 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Who announces cash awards for triumphant Team India members?
A
DDCA
B
ICC
C
BCCI
D
NDTV
Question 22 Explanation: 
Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) announced cash awards of Rs 15 lakh per match for each of the playing eleven that featured in India's maiden Test Cricket series win on Australian soil. Virat Kohli and his team defeated Australia 2-1 in the four-match Test series, ending India's 71-year-old wait for the rare achievement. Congratulating the team, the BCCI also announced cash awards of seven and a half lakh rupees for all the reserve players, as well as the members of the support staff.
Question 23 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
ISRO aims to send human astronauts to space by the year of?
A
2020
B
2021
C
2022
D
2023
Question 23 Explanation: 
The year 2021 will be a busy year for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as it has set itself the target to send astronauts to space. The Gaganyaan project by the space agency will make India the fourth nation to independently send humans into space announced ISRO chief Dr. K Sivan. The Gaganyaan project was announced by PM Modi on Independence Day last year and union minister Ravi Shankar Prasad last month had said that three Indian astronauts will be sent to space for up to seven days by 2022 as part of the Gaganyaan.






Question 24 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
The 0.7 m GROWTH-India telescope made its first observation which is a follow-up study of a nova explosion. It was located in .....
A
Hanle, Ladakh
B
Nubra, Ladakh
C
Khajjiar, Himachal Pradesh
D
Pathankot, Punjab
Question 24 Explanation: 
The 0.7 m GROWTH-India telescope located at Indian Astronomical Observatory in Hanle, Ladakh has made its first observation which is a follow-up study of a nova explosion. The GROWTH-India is a part of multi-country collaborative initiative known as Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH)to observe transient events in the Universe. Universities and Research Institutes of USA, Japan, India, Germany, Taiwan, UK and Israel are part of this Initiative. GROWTH-India is India's first fully robotic telescope designed to capture cosmic events.
Question 25 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Astronomers recently found a 'cold super-Earth'. The planet has been labeled .....
A
Barnard's Star e
B
Barnard's Star g
C
Barnard's Star b
D
Barnard's Star d
Question 25 Explanation: 
The planet for Barnard's star - 2nd closest star system to our sun - appears to be a cold super-Earth. The planet has been labeled Barnard's Star b (GJ 699 b). It orbits its red star every 233 days near the snow-line, a distance where water freezes. Barnard's star is six light-years away from earth.






Question 26 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Karnataka's swimmer Srihari Nataraj has emerged as the most prolific gold medal winner at the Khelo India Youth Games. How many gold medals he won?
A
10
B
9
C
8
D
7
Question 26 Explanation: 
Karnataka's swimmer Srihari Nataraj has emerged as the most prolific gold medal winner at the Khelo India Youth Games. He has won 7 Gold medals in swimming events. P Likith from Karnataka won five gold medals and a bronze medal in swimming at the Khelo India Youth Games. They both were the most decorated gold medalists of the Games.
Question 27 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Which spacecraft of NASA broke the record for smallest space object ever orbited, after successfully entering into orbit around the asteroid Bennu?
A
OSIRIS-Rex
B
RAMSUS-Rfx
C
YIPOP-Yla
D
HUTCH-Las
Question 27 Explanation: 
NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft broke a record after successfully entering into orbit around the asteroid Bennu - the smallest cosmic object ever to be orbited by a spacecraft. NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, 110 million kilometers away, carried out a single, eight-second burn of its thrusters. The manoeuvre placed the spacecraft into orbit around the asteroid Bennu. The spacecraft will circle Bennu about 1.75 kilometres from its centre, closer than any other spacecraft has come to its celestial object of study.






Question 28 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
In which asteroid Scientists found the evidence of abundant water-bearing minerals?
A
Apollo
B
Chiron
C
Amor
D
Bennu
Question 28 Explanation: 
Scientists have discovered evidence of abundant water-bearing minerals on the surface of the near-earth asteroid Bennu. Data from NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft that is currently orbiting the asteroid confirm the presence of aqueously altered, hydrated minerals on its surface. Scientists say similar objects may have seeded the earth with water and organic materials.
Question 29 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Scientists have developed a device named WAND that works like a Pacemaker for which this part of the body?
A
Brain
B
Heart
C
Lungs
D
Liver
Question 29 Explanation: 
Scientists have developed a device named WAND which stands for "Wireless artifact-free neuromodulation device"that works like a "Pacemaker for the brain"to monitor the brain's electrical activity and potentially deliver fine-tuned treatments to patients suffering from diseases like epilepsy and Parkinson's. The most important feature of the device is that it is both wireless and autonomous, which means when it learns to recognize the signs of tremor or seizures then it can adjust the stimulation parameters on its own to prevent the unwanted movements. The device has custom integrated circuits to record the full signal from both the subtle brain wave and the strong electrical pulses.






Question 30 ->Click on any option to know the correct answers (सही उत्तर जानने के लिए किसी भी Choice पर क्लिक करें)
Which of the following is launched to improve data relay and communication links with its remote sensing earth observation satellites?
A
IDRSS
B
IRSCS
C
IRDSS
D
ISDTS
Question 30 Explanation: 
On 16th December 2018, India launched the Indian Data Relay Satellite System (IDRSS) to improve data relay and communication links with its remote sensing earth observation satellites. The two-satellite IDRSS will maintain continuous communication link with India's remote sensing earth observation satellites. The first one is expected to be launched in 2019. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III) would carry three Indian astronauts to the space in 2022.
There are 30 questions to complete.

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