25% of formal system
Distance education system's contribution is not taken into account while considering the figures of enrolment in higher education
10% of the formal system
50% of formal system
Teacher must be fair tin grading and marking.
Teacher should maintain an autocratic atmosphere in the class.
He/she should have interest in his/her profession and knowledge must be updated.
Teacher should use modern techniques. Methods and gadgets are teaching for better understanding of subject matter.
provide good education in rural areas
check wastage of education in rural areas
complete 'Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan'
increase number of school in rural areas
Both A & B
None of the above
Robert C. Williamson
M. S. Gore
Margaret L. Cormack
Freedom of matter
Freedom from Karma
Freedom from life and death
All of these
Both A and B
None of these
The Theory of Nayavada
Nayavada or the theory of partial truth is an integral part of the conception of Anekantavada, Which is essential to concieve the sole nature of reality (vastu nayati prapayati samved-anakotimarohati). It provides for the acceptance of different viewpoints on the basis that each reveals a partial truth about an object. Naya investigates analytically a particular standpoint of the problem.55 But if the problem is treated as the complete truth, it is not Naya, but Durnaya or Nayabhasa or Kunaya. For instance, it is is Naya, and it is and is only is durnaya, while "it is relatively (syat)" is an example of Syadvada56.
Nayas can be as many as there are ways of speaking about a thing. This infinite number of nayas has been reduced to seven, viz. Naigama (figurative), (ii) Sangrha (general or common), (iii) Vyavahare (distributive), (iv) Rijusutra (the actual condition at a particular instant for a long time), (v) Sabda (descriptive), (vi) Samabhirudha (specific), and (vii) evansbhuta (active). The first four nayas are Sabdanayas and the rest are the Artha Nayas, for thoughts and words are the only means by which the mind can approach reality. These seven Nayas have been also divided into two categories, Dravyarthika or Samanya (noumenallor intellectual intuition relating to the substance), and Paryayarthika or Visesa (phenomenal view relating to the modifications of substances). The first three nayas are connected with the former division and the rest with the latter. In the scriptural language these are named the Niscayanaya (real standpoint) and the Vyavharanaya (prartical standpoint). The Tattvarthavartika (1.33) mentions the Drvyastika and the Paryayastika in place of drvyarthika and paryayarthika.
As regards nayabhasa, the Nyaya-Vaisesika systems are called in Naigamabhasa, as they hold the absolute distincition in the characters of a thing. The Sankhya and the Advaita schools are enumerated under the Sangrahabhasa, the Carvaka under the Vyavharnayabhasa, the Buddhist conception of Ksanabhangavada in the Rjusutranayabhasa, the Samabhirudhanayabhasa and so on.
The theory of Naya in Buddhist literature
Pali literature indicates some of the characteristics of Nayavada, The Buddha mentions ten possible ways of claiming knowledge in the course of addressing the Kalamas. The ten (i) anussavena, (ii) paramparaya, (iii) itikiraya, (iv) pitakasampadaya (v) bhavyarupataya (vi) samano na guru, (vii) takkihetu, (viii) nayahetu, (ix) akaraparivitakkena, and (x) ditthinijjhanakkhantiya.58 Out of these, the eighth way, viz. Nayahetu is more important for our study. Here Naya is a method of statement which leads a meaning to a particular judgment.59 The Jataka says that the wise man draws a particular standpoint.60 In about the same meaning. Naya is used in Jaina philosophy, as we have already seen. This Nayahetu of Buddhism appears to indicate the Jaina influence of Naya, and it would have been made a part of its own in the form of two types of Saccas, viz. Sammutisacca and the Paramatthasacca, 61 which are used in about the same sense as Paryayarthikanaya and Dravyarthikanaya or Vyavaharanaya and Niscayanaya. The words Sunaya and Dunnaya are also found in Buddhism used in identical way.62
The Suttanipata indicates that the Sammutisacca was accepted as a common theory of Recluses and the Brahamanas, 63 and the Paramatthasacca was treated as the highest goal.64 These two Saccas are characterised as Nitattha (having a a direct meaning) and Neyyattha (having an indirect meaning).65 The Commentary on the Anguttara Nikaya says that there is no third truth (tatiyam n'upalabbhti). Sammuti (conventional statement) is true because of convention and Paramattha is true because of indicating the true characteristics of realties:
Duve saccani akkhasi Sambuddho vadatam varo.
Sammutim paramatthanca tatiyam n' upalabbhati.
Paramatthavavanam saccam dhammanam tathalakkhanam.66
On the other hand, it is also said that there is only one truth, not second (ekam hi saccam na dutiyamatthi).67 This contradictory statement appears to give the impression that even in Buddhism the nature of things is considered through some sort of relativistic standpoint which is similar to the theory of Nayavada of Jainism,
Buddhlsm was aware of the conception of the Nayavada of Jainism, since the Anguttara Nikaya refers to the several Paccekasaccas (individual truths) of the several recluses and Brahmanas. If it is so, the conception of Paccekasacca (Partial truth) of Buddhism is definitely influenced by the Nayavada of Jainism. There is no doubt that Jainism founded this theory earlier than Buddhism.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Information Technology (IT)
Information and Data Technology (IDT)
Information and Collaborative Technology (ICT)
Information technology (IT) is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information.
Today, the term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term has become very recognizable. The information technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of entire systems.
When computer and communications technologies are combined, the result is information technology, or "infotech". Information technologyis a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information. Presumably, when speaking of Information Technology (IT) as a whole, it is noted that the use of computers and information are associated.
All of these
Dialogue, summary and self-review.
Personal statements, eye contact and simple narration.
Use of simple words, cool reaction and defensive attitude.
Moralising, being judgemental and comments of consolation.
Common Barriers to Effective Communication:
- The use of jargon. Over-complicated, unfamiliar and/or technical terms.
- Emotional barriers and taboos. Some people may find it difficult to express their emotions and some topics may be completely 'off-limits' or taboo. Taboo or difficult topics may include, but are not limited to, politics, religion, disabilities (mental and physical), sexuality and sex, racism and any opinion that may be seen as unpopular.
- Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. (See our page Barriers to Effective Listening for more information).
- Differences in perception and viewpoint.
- Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties.
- Physical barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less effective. Phone calls, text messages and other communication methods that rely on technology are often less effective than face-to-face communication.
- Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents.
- Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping. People often hear what they expect to hear rather than what is actually said and jump to incorrect conclusions. Our page The Ladder of Inference explains this in more detail.
- Cultural differences. The norms of social interaction vary greatly in different cultures, as do the way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the concept of personal space varies between cultures and between different social settings. See our page on Intercultural Awareness for more information.