UPSC PRELIMINARY MOCK TEST 113

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UPSC PRELIMINARY MOCK TEST 113

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Question 71 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW MCQ multiple objective type questions RIGHT ANSWER]
In which one of the following Union Territories, do the people of the Onge tribe live?
A
Andaman and Nicobar islands
B
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
C
Daman and Diu
D
Lakshadweep
Question 71 Explanation: 
Famous tribe of Andaman and Nicobar are Onge, Shompen, Jarwan, Nicobaries, Andamanis etc. They belong to the Negrto race.

Tribes Race Islands

Shompen Mangoloid Great Nicobar

Nicobaries Mangoloid Great Nicobar

Onges Negroid Little Nicobar

Sentinelese Negroid Sentinel Island

Jarawa Negroid Middle and South Andaman

Andamanis Negroid Strait Island.

Question 72 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW MCQ multiple objective type questions RIGHT ANSWER]
Consider the following statements regarding Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).
  1. NCDs are of short duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors.
  2. National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) was launched in order to prevent and control the major NCDs.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
A
1 only
B
2 only
C
Both
D
None
Question 72 Explanation: 

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors.

The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.

National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) was launched in 2010 in 100 districts across 21 States, in order to prevent and control the major NCDs.

The main focus of the programme is on health promotion, early diagnosis, management and referral of cases, besides strengthening the infrastructure and capacity building.

Question 73 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW MCQ multiple objective type questions RIGHT ANSWER]
Consider the following statements about 'The Ocean Cleanup', recently in the news: 1.It is a policy advocacy organisation for governments in the western world for ways and means to reduce plastic waste generation. 2.The organisation was instrumental in recently getting the UN to adopt a resolution to completely stop plastic waste from entering the oceans. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A
1 only
B
2 only
C
Both 1 and 2
D
Neither 1 nor 2
Question 73 Explanation: 

The Ocean Cleanup is a non-profit organization, developing advanced technologies to rid the world's oceans of plastic.

Every year, millions of tons of plastic enter the ocean. A significant percentage of this plastic drifts into large systems of circulating ocean currents, also known as gyres. Once trapped in a gyre, the plastic will break down into microplastics and become increasingly easier to mistake for food by sea life.

Going after it with vessels and nets would be costly, time-consuming, labor-intensive and lead to vast amounts of carbon emission and by-catch. That is why The Ocean Cleanup is developing a passive system, moving with the currents - just like the plastic - to catch it. The system consists of a 600-meter-long floater that sits at the surface of the water and a tapered 3-meter-deep skirt attached below. The floater provides buoyancy to the system and prevents plastic from flowing over it, while the skirt stops debris from escaping underneath. As the system moves through the water, the plastic continues to collect within the boundaries of the U-shaped system. (Image: On the left is the cross-section of the 600-m long floater; The floater is shown on the right)

https://www.theoceancleanup.com ;

In the news: BBC ; "

Question 74 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW MCQ multiple objective type questions RIGHT ANSWER]
With reference to enzymes, consider the following statements:
  1. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions by increasing the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy
  2. Unlike other chemical catalysts, enzymes in biological reactions are consumed in the end
  3. All enzymes are proteins
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
A
1 and 3 Only
B
1 Only
C
2 and 3 Only
D
1 and 2 Only
Question 74 Explanation: 

Enzymes /nzamz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.

Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures. Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy. Some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylase, which allows a reaction that would otherwise take millions of years to occur in milliseconds.

Chemically, enzymes are like any catalyst and are not consumed in chemical reactions, nor do they alter the equilibrium of a reaction. Enzymes differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules: inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity, and activators are molecules that increase activity. Many therapeutic drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors.

An enzyme's activity decreases markedly outside its optimal temperature and pH. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. Some household products use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions: enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein, starch or fat stains on clothes, and enzymes in meat tenderizer break down proteins into smaller molecules, making the meat easier to chew.

There are some enzymes which are made up of RNA (ribozymes) "

Question 75 [CLICK ON ANY CHOICE TO KNOW MCQ multiple objective type questions RIGHT ANSWER]
Xpert molecular diagnostic test is associated with which one of the following diseases?
A
Dengue
B
Chickengunya
C
Ebola
D
Tuberculosis
Question 75 Explanation: 
The Xpert molecular diagnostic test is a cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test, automated diagnostic test that can identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA and resistance to rifampicin (RIF) by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT).
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