# UPSC PRELIMINARY MOCK TEST 240

## Click on any option to know the CORRECT ANSWERS

 Question 1
The 'Turing Test', sometimes in the news, is seen in the context of
 A UNAIDS 90-90-90 target B International border security C Long duration space travel D Artificial intelligence

Question 1 Explanation:
• A Turing Test is a method of inquiry for determining whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human being. The test is named after Alan Turing, an English mathematician who pioneered machine learning during the 1940s and 1950s. The original test is also referred to as the Imitation Game.

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 Question 2
With reference to Nipah virus, consider the following statements:

1.It can be transmitted to humans from animals or contaminated foods or directly from human-to-human.

2.Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are the natural host of Nipah virus.

3.There is no treatment or vaccine available for either people or animals.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 A 1 and 3 only B 2 only C 2 and 3 only D 1, 2 and 3

Question 2 Explanation:

Key Facts of Nipah Virus:

• Nipah virus infection in humans causes a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection (subclinical) to acute respiratory infection and fatal encephalitis.
• The case fatality rate is estimated at 40% to 75%. This rate can vary by outbreak depending on local capabilities for epidemiological surveillance and clinical management.
• Nipah virus can be transmitted to humans from animals (such as bats or pigs), or contaminated foods and can also be transmitted directly from human-to-human.
• Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are the natural host of Nipah virus.
• There is no treatment or vaccine available for either people or animals. The primary treatment for humans is supportive care.
• The 2018 annual review of the WHO R&D Blueprint list of priority diseases indicates that there is an urgent need for accelerated research and development for the Nipah virus.
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 Question 3
Which of the following is an annual buffalo race held between November and March by the farming community in Karnataka?
 A Jallikattu B Kambala C Vallam Kali D Mallakhamb

Question 3 Explanation:
• Kambala is a contest where two pairs of buffaloes tied ploughs are made to race on slush-filled tracks with a jockey guiding them while they run.
• The buffaloes are made to run at a speed that they time close to 12 to 13 seconds while covering a distance of 140 to 160 metres.
• The farmers use a whip to nudge the buffalo ahead and try and make them a medal winner.
• The Kambala season generally starts in November and lasts till March l the following year.
 Question 4
Consider the following statements with respect to "Torrefaction Technology":
1. Torrefaction is a thermal process to convert biomass into a coal-like material, which has better fuel characteristics than the original biomass.
2. Compared to fresh biomass, storage of the torrefied material can be substantially simplified since biological degradation and water uptake is minimized.
Which of the following codes below given is/are correct?
 A 1 only B 2 only C Both 1 and 2 D Neither 1 nor 2

Question 4 Explanation:
Both statements are correct.

Statement 1 is correct: Torrefaction is a thermal process to convert biomass into a coal-like material, which has better fuel characteristics than the original biomass. Torrefied biomass is more brittle, making grinding easier and less energy intensive.

Statement 2 is correct: Torrefaction involves the heating of biomass in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of typically 200 to 400$^\circ$C. The structure of the biomass changes in such a way, that the material becomes brittle, and more hydrophobic. Compared to fresh biomass, storage of the torrefied material can be substantially simplified since biological degradation and water uptake is minimized.

 Question 5
Which of the following is/are correct about Differential Voting Rights (DVRs)?
1. These are not allowed to be traded in the market.
2. Investors owning DVRs are not allowed to vote.
 A 1 only B 2 only C Both are correct D Both are incorrect