UPSC PRELIMINARY MOCK TEST 4
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- Mangroves require less solar radiation.
- Mangroves help to impede water flow and thereby enhance the deposition of sediment
- Leaves are thin and contain salt secreting glands.
- According to State of Forest Report 2017, moderately dense mangroves constitute the largest part.
1 and 2 only
2, 3 and 4 only
All of the above
They require high solar radiation and have the ability to absorb fresh water from saline/brackish water. India is located in tropical and sub-tropical region.
Leaves are thick and contain salt secreting glands.
State of Forest Report, 2017:
- Mangroves of India constitutes 3.3% of the total world's mangrove vegetation. West Bengal accounts for half of the total cover.
- There has been increase in cover with respect to 2015 mainly due to plantation and regeneration.
- Open Mangrove > Very dense mangrove > Moderately dense mangrove
- The Constitution permits the Central government to pass the budget of a State, if it is under President's Rule, only if Parliament is not in session
- The Budget session of Parliament according to the Constitution comprises two sessions because the first part of the Budget session is always prorogued by the President
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
"The first part was adjourned on March 16, with the announcement that the Houses will meet again on April 25, but the session was formally closed just before the end of March. This was done to enable the passage of the Uttarakhand Budget by executive order of the Central government after President's Rule was imposed in the State. The Constitution allows Parliament to pass the budget of a State if it is under President's Rule. It permits the Central government to do so if Parliament is not in session. Rather than call Parliament for a day's sitting, the government chose the latter route. This is not the first instance of using the flexibility of Parliament sessions by governments to suit their ends."
- Early nationalists wanted industrialisation to be based on Indian capital and not foreign capital
- Early nationalists believed construction of railways by the British helped Indian industries
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
India's Struggle for Independence, Bipan Chandra, Chapter - 7
At the same time, nearly all the early nationalists were clear on one question: However great the need of India for industrialization, it had to be based on Indian capital and not foreign capital. Ever since the1840s, British economists, statesman and officials had seen the investment of foreign capital, along with law and order, as the major instrument for the development of India. John Stuart Mill and Alfred Marshall had put forward this view in their economic treatises. In 1899, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy, said that foreign capital was 'a sine qua non to the national advancement' of India.
Similarly, the early nationalists pointed out that the railways had not been coordinated with India's industrial needs. They had therefore, ushered in a commercial and not an industrial revolution which enabled imported foreign goods to undersell domestic industrial products. Moreover, they said that the benefits of railway construction in terms of encouragement to the steel and machine industry and to capital investment - what today we would call backward and forward linkages - had been reaped by Britain and not India. In fact, remarked G.V. Joshi, expenditure on railways should be seen as Indian subsidy to British industries.' Or, as Tilak put it, it was like 'decorating another's wife."
- Foreign investors can bring claims against a host state for alleged treaty breaches at international arbitral forums
- Israel's BIT model provides a broad asset-based definition of foreign investment unlike the Indian model which defines it narrowly
- It contains a broad, Most Favoured Nation (MFN) provision
1 and 2 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
A mains-oriented question.
- Regarding Statement 1: The Israeli model gives an investor the choice to submit any investment dispute with a state to international arbitration if not resolved within six months through negotiations. The Indian model imposes many procedural and jurisdictional restrictions on an investor's right to bring an ISDS claim. These include a foreign investor having to litigate in domestic courts for five years before pursuing a claim under international law. These requirements make it very difficult for a foreign investor to make efficient use of the ISDS provision.
- Regarding Statement 2: Israel's model provides a broad asset-based definition of foreign investment that covers both FDI and portfolio investment. The Indian model of 2016 defines investment narrowly as an enterprise (with its assets) that has to possess certain characteristics of investment including the investment having 'significance for the development' - words not defined in the BIT - of the host country.
- Regarding Statement 3: The Israeli model contains a broad most favoured nation (MFN) provision - a cornerstone of non-discrimination in international economic relations - which is missing in the Indian model. The absence of MFN, from Israel's perspective, would mean that its businesses would have no remedy under international law if India were to discriminate against it, say, by offering greater incentives to another defence manufacturer over an Israeli one.
1, 2, 4
1, 3, 4
1, 2, 3, 4
The objectives of the Central Consumer Protection Council is to promote and to protect the rights of the consumers such as: -
- The right to be protected against the marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property.
- The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services, as the case may be so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices;
- The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices;
- The right to be heard and to be assured that consumer's interest will receive due consideration at appropriate forums;
- The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or restrictive trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and
- The right to consumer education.